James Stuart - Ngi Ya Yi Vum' Inqaba / Wa Tint' Amankengane!




A discography for James Stuart in chronological order based on matrix numbers sourced from Alan Kelly's research on the history of the Gramophone Company.
Note that where matrix number do not appear chronological those numbers usually represent a second of third take recorded at a later date but with the same matrix number from the initial recording date. In these cases a "2" or "3" is added after the matrix. Also note that spellings sourced from the EMI Archives may be different from those found on the actual record labels. Click on the links to listen to the tracks in the SAMAP archive:

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded April 11, 1927
Yy10393-1      Wa tint amankengane! (4184, X-5-42064)
Yy10394-1      U ija iji bon inkwenkwezi ne langa (4185, X-5-42065)
Yy10395-1      Ibubesi eligulaye (4180, X-41204)
Yy10396-1      Inqomfi na mapup'alo (4181, X-41207)
Yy10398-1      Ibubesi ne ngosa (4181, X-41206)
Yy10399-1      Izibonga zi ka Dingana (4176, X-41196)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded April 28, 1927
Bb10592-2      Izibonga zi ka Mpande (4177, X-41198)
Bb10593-1      Izibonga zi ka Mpande ka Dinuzulu (4178, X-41200)
Bb10594-1      Izibonga zi ka Mbuyazi (Um lungu) (4179, X-41202)
Bb10595-1      Inkentshane ne zinyane Le-mou (4182, X-41208)
Bb10596-1      Inja ne nkentshane (4180, X-41205)
Bb10598-2      Impungutsh'e nge na Misila (4183, X-41210)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded April 29, 1927
Bb10802-2      Izibonga zi ka Solomoni ka Dinuzulu (4178, X-41201)
Bb10803-2      Izibonga zi ka Somsewu ka Sonzika (4179, X-41203)
Bb10804-2      Izibonga zi ka Zulu ka Nogandaya (4175, X-41213)
Bb10805-3      Izibonga zi ka Nozitshada ka Maqoboza (4176, X-41197)
Bb10806-1      Ukukala kwe zynyoni (4185, X-49602)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded May 23, 1927
Bb10504-3      Izibonga zi ka tshaka, part 1 Praises of Shaka (4175, X-41212)
Bb10597-2      Isisu ne zito (4183, X-41211)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded June 8, 1927
Yy10397-3      Isela no nina, Fable (4182, X-41209)
Yy10400-2      Izibonga zi ka Cetshwayo (4177, X-41199)
Yy10505-2      Ngi ija iji vum ingaba (4184, X-5-42063)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded August 1928
Yy14292-2      Ihashi ne mbongol equingle (4199, X-41249)
Yy14293-1      Amagundane e hlez' ebandhla lawo (4199, X-41248)
Yy14294-1      Ibubesi ne sibawu (4200, X-41251)
Yy14295-1      Ipisi ne nkentshane (4200, X-41250)
Yy14297-1      Izibonga zi ka Mageba no punga no ndaba no jama (4195, X-41240 )
Yy14298-3      Izibonga zi ka Senzangakona (4195, X-41241)
Yy14299-2      Izibonga zi ka iShaka, part 2 (4193, X-41236)
Yy14300-2      Izibonga zi ka iShaka, part 3 (4193, X-41237)
Yy14301-3      Izibonga zi ka iShaka, part 4 (4194, X-41238)
Yy14302-7      Izibonga zi ka iShaka, part 5 (4194, X-41239)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded September 1928
Yy14318-1      Ukozi ne zinkuku (4198, X-41246)
Yy14319-1      U Tshaka na bant'a landul' ugawyi kanti ba nawo (4196, X-41242)
Yy14320-1      Ubuhle o wa-t u umutu u bu Shiya emhlabeni (4196, X-41243)
Yy14321-1      Ukuzalwa ku ka Dinuzulu no kutiwa kwake igama (4197, X-41245)
Yy14322-1      U Gala u-t u Tshaka ma Fak itshe essiswini (4197, X-41244)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded October 1928
Yy14628-1      Inkozi ye zinyoni (4198, X-41247)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded February 10, 1930
Yy18332-2      Izibonga zi ka nvundhlana ka menzewa, chief of the Biyels tribe (4263, 30-3578)
Yy18333-2      Izibonga zi ka Sotobe ka mpangalala, tahakas ambassador (4263, 30-3579)
Yy18335-2      Imbuzi ne sibuko (4266, 30-3584)
Yy18336-2      Izibonga zi ka mnkabayi ka jama (4259, 30-3570)
Yy18339-1      Ukulahlwa kwe zikali za makosi (4264, 30-3581)
Yy18341-1      Izihambi no nwabu (4266, 30-358)
Yy18342-2      Izibonga zi ka magaye ka di bandhlela, chief of the Cele tribe (4262, 30-3576)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded March 3, 1930
Yy18334-3      Inkawu ne ati (4265, 30-3582)
Yy18343-2      Izibonga zi ka dingiswayo ka jobe chief of the Mtetwa tribe (4260, 30-3572)
Yy18377-2      Izibonga zi ka Solomoni ka dinuzulu, part 1 (4255, 30-3562)
Yy18378-2      Izibonga zi ka Solomoni ka dinuzulu, part 2 (4255, 30-3563)
Yy18381-2      Izibonga zi ka Solomoni ka dinuzulu, part 4 (4257, 30-3566)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded March 10, 1930
Yy18337-3      Imbuzi e nge na ntshebe (4265, 30-3583)
Yy18338-2      Izibonga zi ka ndhlila ko sompisi prime minister of Dingana (4258, 30-3569)
Yy18340-2      Insumansumane e y' enziwa utshako ezempohlweni (4264, 30-3580)
Yy18375-2      Izibonga zi ka mnyamana ka ngqengelele prime minister of Dingana (4259, 30-3571)
Yy18376-2      Izibonga zi ka ngoza ka mkubukeli chief of the Temba tribe (4260, 30-3573)
Yy18379-2      Izibonga zi ka Dingana, part 2 (4256, 30-3564)
Yy18380-3      Izibonga zi ka Dingana, part 3 (4256, 30-3565)
Yy18382-2      Izibonga zi ka Dingana, part 5 (4257, 30-3567)
Yy18383-2      Izibonga zi ka Dingana, part 6 (4258, 30-3568)
Yy18384-3      Izibonga zi ka pakatwayo ka Kondhlo, chief of the [...], part 1 (4261, 30-3574)

James Stuart (sung in Zulu), London, recorded March 17, 1930
Yy19011-2      Izibonga zi ka zihlandhlo ka Gowabe, chief of the Embo tribe (4262, 30-3577)
Yy19012-2      Izibonga zi ka zihlandhlo ka Gowabe, part 2 (4261, 30-3575)

Caluza's Zulu Double Quartet, introduction by Mr. Stuart, September 29, 1930
Yy20200-2      uZitulele ka qali muntu (4307, 30-5884; GU 20)


recorded 1927-04-11
issued 1928
Gramophone Co. EMI
made in UK
matrix Yy10505-2
matrix Yy10393-1
78 rpm
source: flatnternational / Kirby



1.1Ngi Ya Yi Vum'Inqaba


2.2Wa Tint' Amankengane




JAMES STUART - vocal, clapping



James Stuart, a fluent isiZulu linguist, was born in Pietermaritzburg in 1868. According to David Rycroft, Stuart had "a deep interest in the African peoples of Natal, Zululand and Swaziland, and an appreciation, unique for his time, of the need to record their historical traditions, customs, beliefs and oral literature for posterity". (Rycroft in review of "The James Stuart Archive [...]" published by the Killie Cambell Museum, 1976)

Stuart recorded in London at least 62 tracks for the Gramophone Company's Zonophone label beginning in April 1927. All were issued in 1928 and then additional sessions were recorded in 1928 and 1930. These were primarily spoken word eulogies or "izibongo" and various stories in isiZulu. The izibongo were praise songs dedicated to leaders like Shaka and Dingaan. The izibongo tradition continues today in South Africa.

The tracks featured above are not izibongo but, uniquely, are songs sung with a cyclical / repetitive structure that remind me of tracks by the Zulu Minstrel, c1933. Wa Tint' Amankengane! was recorded on April 11th, 1927 and is the very first recording Stuart made at Hayes in London, while Ngi Ya Yi Vum' Inqaba was recorded two months later on June 6th. The SAMAP digital archive has a number of examples of Stuart's recordings, but unlike the example shown above, they are all spoken word.

It is interesting to note that Stuart introduces one of Reuben Caluza's recordings at Hayes in September 1930 (4307, GU 20). The two did know each other and according to Veit Erlmann, Caluza assisted Stuart in talks that he gave about Zulu music when Caluza visited London. Stuart died in 1942.

Simon Sibiya also recorded for Zonophone at least 18 tracks in 1929. As with Stuart the tracts feature a similar structure, though in his examples Sibiya includes the ukubonga or praise interjection so familiar in many maskanda songs.

This record was part of a personal collection of 78 rpms that were owned by ethnomusicologist Percival Kirby. To be sure, Kirby made hand-written notes on many of the labels. At some point the discs were acquired by, Johannesburg collector, Warren Siebrits who subsequently passed them onto the Flat International archive.

Many thanks to Warren Siebrits for leading me to this record! Also I am indebted to Alan Kelly for his tireless research on the discography of the Gramophone Company.

Check out the post Maskanda Roots (1927 - 1964) at Electric Jive for more information. Also check out John H. Cowley's excellent text uBungca on the history of early African recordings.